In Parkinson disease (PD) movement disorder occur. When the nerve cells in the brain does not produce enough brain chemical(dopamine) Parkinson disease happen. In some cases it comes as genetic however it has nothing to do with run in families. The exposer to dopamine environment plays vital role. The symptom of this disease starts gradually that is it starts from a side of the body and later spread in other parts. The symptoms includes Trembling of hands, arms, legs, jaw and face, Stiffness of the arms, legs and trunk, Slowness of movement and Poor balance and coordination. When the situation worsen people may have problem in walking, talking, or undertaking simple tasks , depression, sleep problems, chewing, swallowing, or speaking. The major problem of this is that no lab test for PD and difficult to diagnose.
Symptoms of Parkinson disease
There are four most common symptoms through which Parkinson disease is diagnose. Besides that, some secondary and non-motor symptoms that upset people. Different people with Parkinson behave differently. Such as some may have tremor as primary symptom where as other could have problem in balancing themselves as primary symptom. In Some people disease progresses quickly where as to other the progress could be slow.
Generally it is said that the Parkinson disease is a progressive disease even though some people with Parkinson only have symptoms on one side of the body for long time. However the symptom begins to the other side as well. The Symptoms on the other side of the body may not be severe as symptoms on the initial side.
Causes of Parkinson disease
The cause of Parkinson is unanswered. The doctors believe that its cause is the combination of genetic and environmental factors. It varies from person to person. In some people genetic factors might play the major role while to some people it might be illness, an environmental toxin or other event may contribute to Parkinson disease.
Researchers have recognized aging as an important risk factor. People over the age of 60 have greater risk Parkinson disease.
To determine the cause of this disease the phenomena of chemical or genetic trigger which starts the cell death process in dopamine neurons is the focus of intense scientific study. Many believe that scientists will be able to develop treatments to stop or reverse the disease if they understand the sequence of events that leads to the loss of dopamine cells.
Diagnosis of Parkinson disease
The diagnosis of Parkinson is very difficult to recognize in its earlier stage. However a good skilled practitioner can recognize it. The experts used to study patient neurological history and conduct examination. No exact test is there to determine Parkinson. So the doctors used to take the helps of clinical information provided by the patient suffering from Parkinson and the conclusions of the neurological examination. The doctors used to the following factors to determine the disease. Animated expression, The physical symptoms like tremor, observing stiffness in the limbs or neck, Can you stand easily from the chair, How normal is the walking of the patient and ability to regaining the balance.
One group of scientists suggests that Parkinson’s disease may result from exposure to environmental toxin or injury. Epidemiological research highlights numerous factors that might be linked to Parkinson’s comprising rural living, underground water, manganese and pesticides.
Some studies have verified that long occupational exposure to certain types of chemicals is associated with high risk of PD. They are insecticides permethrin and beta-hexa chlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), the herbicides parquet and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and the fungicide .
In 2009, the US Department of Veterans Affairs added Parkinson’s to a list of diseases associated with exposure to Agent Orange. MPTP synthetic neurotoxin agent called maycause immediate and permanent Parkinsonism.
Majority of Parkinson cases are not directly hereditary. Around 15 to 30 percent of people with Parkinson may have a relative with the disease. Researchers have observed that people with first-degree such as a parent or sibling could be four to nine percent higher chance of developing PD. compared to general people. So a person parent who has PD may have greater chances of developing this disease.
Since Scientists have revealed numerous gene changes that cause the disease. these affect only a minor number of families. Some of these changes comprise genes that play a role in dopamine cell functions. Parkinson develops at an early age in people with mutations in genes for parking, PINK1, LRRK2, DJ-1
Since genetic forms of a disease are studied in depth in the laboratory. so to Understanding the rare genetic forms of Parkinson might help to understand more common forms of the disease.