It is a viral disease like flu and cold and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) caused by the virus. To know about HIV it is important to know what the virus is? A virus is a set of orders for making new viruses, it wrapped up in some fat, protein and sugar. HIV exhibits their activities through living cells. Whit ought living cell the virus can’t do anything so it is just like the brain with nobody. Hence to make more viruses or harm a virus infects the cell. HIV generally infects CD4 cells, which is also known as T cells, or T-helper cells. They are white blood cells that organize the immune system to fight disease. So when in the cell HIV begins to produce millions of little viruses, which ultimately kill the cell and then infect other cells. Hence the medications marketed to treat HIV work by interfering with this method.
HIV causes AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). The HIV virus attacks the immune system which is the “security force of the body. It fights off infections. Once the immune system fails to fight with the infection the body loses the protection the body used to have many serious, sometimes deadly infections and cancers. This is known as “opportunistic infections (OIs)”. it is so called because the infection takes the advantage of the body’s weakened defenses. If someone says the person died of AIDS. It is not correct rather it is due to the opportunistic infections that cause death. AIDS is the condition that supports OIs to occur.
To reproduce viruses it has to infect the cells of the body. technically Viruses are not alive rather They hijack our cells and use them to make new viruses. The process of happening this is that our body continuously makes a new skin and blood cells and all cells each makes new proteins to stay alive and reproduce. the Viruses used to hide their DNA in the DNA of the cell. Hence when the cell attempts to make its own proteins it coincidently makes new viruses as well. HIV can infect the cells in the body, but generally, it infects cells in the immune system. Once the cells are infected, the cell produces hundreds of new replicas of HIV. The immune cells contain proteins on their surface which is called CD4 receptors. the CD4 protein aids the virus to bind the cell. However, the chief target for HIV is a white blood cell (T4 lymphocyte, or “T helper cell”). The T4 cell warns the immune system about the presence of invaders. When HIV binds to an immune cell, it hides its DNA inside the cell’s DNA and so it turns the cell into a kind of HIV factory and hence it makes several copies of itself. The life cycle of it is as follows.
The HIV has AN outer shell (envelope) of proteins, fats, and sugars. Inside, it carries its genes and special enzymes. Proteins on the surface of HIV (also known as receptors) are powerfully interested in and hook up with the CD4+ receptors on a T4 cell. once HIV binds to a CD4+ receptor, alternative proteins on the cell’s surface get activated, permitting HIV to fuse to and enter the cell. Entry into the cell may be blocked by a category of HIV meds known as entry inhibitors.
HIV’s genes are RNA whereas the genes within human cells ar deoxyribonucleic acid. So, so as for the virus to infect the cell, a method is known as “reverse transcription” makes a deoxyribonucleic acid copy of the HIV’s RNA. this is often through with one among HIV’s enzymes known as polymerase. The new HIV deoxyribonucleic acid is additionally known as “proviral deoxyribonucleic acid.” Reverse transcription may be blocked by one category of HIV meds known as glycoside polymerase inhibitors (NRTIs) and another category known as non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitors (NNRTIs).
The new HIV deoxyribonucleic acid is then carried into the cell’s nucleus (center), wherever the cell’s deoxyribonucleic acid is unbroken. At now, another HIV accelerator known as integrase hides the HIV deoxyribonucleic acid into the cell’s deoxyribonucleic acid. Then, once the cell tries to form new proteins for itself, it accidentally makes new HIV. Integration may be blocked by a category of HIV meds known as integrase inhibitors.
Once the HIV deoxyribonucleic acid is within the cell’s nucleus, it directs the cell to supply new HIV. Special enzymes can eventually produce new genetic material known as informational RNA or ribonucleic acid. (Think of this new RNA as directions for creating new HIV.) Transcription may be blocked by antisense antivirals or transcription inhibitors. However, these categories of medication are within the earliest stage of analysis and don’t seem to be officially approved.
Since ribonucleic acid carries directions for creating new microorganism proteins, every section of the ribonucleic acid relates to creating a unique a part of HIV. So, because the full strand of ribonucleic acid is processed, it gets remodeled or “translated” into all the microorganism proteins required to form a brand new virus.
The final step begins with the assembly of the latest virus. First, the long strings of proteins translated from the ribonucleic acid are then hacked into smaller proteins by the HIV accelerator known as an enzyme. These proteins become completely different components of HIV, like structural items (capsid, matrix, etc.) or enzymes (integrase, protease, etc.). Next, once all the new microorganism proteins get assembled, they enter through and bud off the host cell to form a brand new virus. The new HIV then takes it slow to mature, which might maintain to infect new cells. microorganism assembly may be blocked by a category of HIV meds known as enzyme inhibitors (PIs). Maturation is also blocked by victimization maturation inhibitors, though none are nevertheless office approved.